Mycobacteria are notable for both the enduring devastation they have wrought upon human health and their bizarre, thickly stratified cell wall. One reason mycobacterial species continue to infect and kill people is that these bugs are very hard to kill with antibiotics. If we want to be able to develop more effective treatments, we need to understand why these bacteria are so antibiotic tolerant. This tolerance is, in part, due to their poorly-permeable and very highly regulated cell wall. In the Boutte lab, we study how the the cell wall works, and how it contributes to the antibiotic tolerance of mycobacteria under stress.